Source code for ufl.operators

```"""Operators.

This module extends the form language with free function operators,
which are either already available as member functions on UFL objects
or defined as compound operators involving basic operations on the UFL
objects.
"""
# Copyright (C) 2008-2016 Martin Sandve Alnæs and Anders Logg
#
# This file is part of UFL (https://www.fenicsproject.org)
#
#
# Modified by Kristian B. Oelgaard, 2011
# Modified by Massimiliano Leoni, 2016.

import operator
import warnings

from ufl import sobolevspace
from ufl.algebra import Conj, Imag, Real
from ufl.averaging import CellAvg, FacetAvg
from ufl.checks import is_cellwise_constant
from ufl.coefficient import Coefficient
from ufl.conditional import (
EQ,
NE,
AndCondition,
Conditional,
MaxValue,
MinValue,
NotCondition,
OrCondition,
)
from ufl.constantvalue import ComplexValue, RealValue, Zero, as_ufl
from ufl.domain import extract_domains
from ufl.form import Form
from ufl.geometry import FacetNormal, SpatialCoordinate
from ufl.indexed import Indexed
from ufl.mathfunctions import (
Acos,
Asin,
Atan,
Atan2,
BesselI,
BesselJ,
BesselK,
BesselY,
Cos,
Cosh,
Erf,
Exp,
Ln,
Sin,
Sinh,
Sqrt,
Tan,
Tanh,
)
from ufl.tensoralgebra import (
Cofactor,
Cross,
Determinant,
Deviatoric,
Dot,
Inner,
Inverse,
Outer,
Perp,
Skew,
Sym,
Trace,
Transposed,
)
from ufl.tensors import ListTensor, as_matrix, as_tensor, as_vector
from ufl.variable import Variable

# --- Basic operators ---

[docs]def rank(f):
"""The rank of f."""
f = as_ufl(f)
return len(f.ufl_shape)

[docs]def shape(f):
"""The shape of f."""
f = as_ufl(f)
return f.ufl_shape

# --- Complex operators ---

[docs]def conj(f):
"""The complex conjugate of f."""
f = as_ufl(f)
return Conj(f)

# Alias because both conj and conjugate are in numpy and we wish to be
# consistent.
conjugate = conj

[docs]def real(f):
"""The real part of f."""
f = as_ufl(f)
return Real(f)

[docs]def imag(f):
"""The imaginary part of f."""
f = as_ufl(f)
return Imag(f)

# --- Elementwise tensor operators ---

[docs]def elem_op_items(op_ind, indices, *args):
"""Elem op items."""
sh = args[0].ufl_shape
indices = tuple(indices)
n = sh[len(indices)]

def extind(ii):
return indices + (ii,)

if len(sh) == len(indices) + 1:
return [op_ind(extind(i), *args) for i in range(n)]
else:
return [elem_op_items(op_ind, extind(i), *args) for i in range(n)]

[docs]def elem_op(op, *args):
"""Apply element-wise operations.

Take the element-wise application of operator op on scalar values
from one or more tensor arguments.
"""
args = [as_ufl(arg) for arg in args]
sh = args[0].ufl_shape
if not all(sh == x.ufl_shape for x in args):
raise ValueError("Cannot take element-wise operation with different shapes.")

if sh == ():
return op(*args)

def op_ind(ind, *args):
return op(*[x[ind] for x in args])

return as_tensor(elem_op_items(op_ind, (), *args))

[docs]def elem_mult(A, B):
"""Take the elementwise multiplication of tensors A and B with the same shape."""
return elem_op(operator.mul, A, B)

[docs]def elem_div(A, B):
"""Take the elementwise division of tensors A and B with the same shape."""
return elem_op(operator.truediv, A, B)

[docs]def elem_pow(A, B):
"""Take the elementwise power of tensors A and B with the same shape."""
return elem_op(operator.pow, A, B)

# --- Tensor operators ---

[docs]def transpose(A):
"""Take the transposed of tensor A."""
A = as_ufl(A)
if A.ufl_shape == ():
return A
return Transposed(A)

[docs]def outer(*operands):
"""Take the outer product of two or more operands.

The complex conjugate of the first argument is taken.
"""
n = len(operands)
if n == 1:
return operands[0]
elif n == 2:
a, b = operands
else:
a = outer(*operands[:-1])
b = operands[-1]
a = as_ufl(a)
b = as_ufl(b)
if a.ufl_shape == () and b.ufl_shape == ():
return Conj(a) * b
return Outer(a, b)

[docs]def inner(a, b):
"""Take the inner product of a and b.

The complex conjugate of the second argument is taken.
"""
a = as_ufl(a)
b = as_ufl(b)
if a.ufl_shape == () and b.ufl_shape == ():
return a * Conj(b)
return Inner(a, b)

[docs]def dot(a, b):
"""Take the dot product of a and b.

This won't take the complex conjugate of the second argument.
"""
a = as_ufl(a)
b = as_ufl(b)
if a.ufl_shape == () and b.ufl_shape == ():
return a * b
return Dot(a, b)

[docs]def perp(v):
"""Take the perp of v.

I.e. :math:`(-v_1, +v_0)`.
"""
v = as_ufl(v)
if v.ufl_shape != (2,):
raise ValueError("Expecting a 2D vector expression.")
return Perp(v)

[docs]def cross(a, b):
"""Take the cross product of a and b."""
a = as_ufl(a)
b = as_ufl(b)
return Cross(a, b)

[docs]def det(A):
"""Take the determinant of A."""
A = as_ufl(A)
if A.ufl_shape == ():
return A
return Determinant(A)

[docs]def inv(A):
"""Take the inverse of A."""
A = as_ufl(A)
if A.ufl_shape == ():
return 1 / A
return Inverse(A)

[docs]def cofac(A):
"""Take the cofactor of A."""
A = as_ufl(A)
return Cofactor(A)

[docs]def tr(A):
"""Take the trace of A."""
A = as_ufl(A)
return Trace(A)

[docs]def diag(A):
"""Diagonal ranl-2 tensor.

Take the diagonal part of rank 2 tensor A or make a diagonal rank 2
tensor from a rank 1 tensor.

"""
# TODO: Make a compound type or two for this operator

# Get and check dimensions
r = len(A.ufl_shape)
if r == 1:
(n,) = A.ufl_shape
elif r == 2:
m, n = A.ufl_shape
if m != n:
raise ValueError("Can only take diagonal of square tensors.")
else:
raise ValueError("Expecting rank 1 or 2 tensor.")

# Build matrix row by row
rows = []
for i in range(n):
row = [0] * n
row[i] = A[i] if r == 1 else A[i, i]
rows.append(row)
return as_matrix(rows)

[docs]def diag_vector(A):
"""Take the diagonal part of rank 2 tensor A and return as a vector.

"""
# TODO: Make a compound type for this operator

# Get and check dimensions
if len(A.ufl_shape) != 2:
raise ValueError("Expecting rank 2 tensor.")
m, n = A.ufl_shape
if m != n:
raise ValueError("Can only take diagonal of square tensors.")

# Return diagonal vector
return as_vector([A[i, i] for i in range(n)])

[docs]def dev(A):
"""Take the deviatoric part of A."""
A = as_ufl(A)
return Deviatoric(A)

[docs]def skew(A):
"""Take the skew symmetric part of A."""
A = as_ufl(A)
return Skew(A)

[docs]def sym(A):
"""Take the symmetric part of A."""
A = as_ufl(A)
return Sym(A)

# --- Differential operators

[docs]def Dx(f, *i):
"""Take the partial derivative of f with respect to spatial variable number i.

Equivalent to f.dx(*i).
"""
f = as_ufl(f)
return f.dx(*i)

[docs]def Dn(f):
"""Take the directional derivative of f in the facet normal direction.

The facet normal is Dn(f) := dot(grad(f), n).
"""
f = as_ufl(f)
if is_cellwise_constant(f):
return Zero(f.ufl_shape, f.ufl_free_indices, f.ufl_index_dimensions)

[docs]def diff(f, v):
"""Take the derivative of f with respect to the variable v.

If f is a form, diff is applied to each integrand.
"""
# Apply to integrands
if isinstance(f, Form):
from ufl.algorithms.map_integrands import map_integrands

return map_integrands(lambda e: diff(e, v), f)

# Apply to expression
f = as_ufl(f)
if isinstance(v, SpatialCoordinate):
elif isinstance(v, (Variable, Coefficient)):
return VariableDerivative(f, v)
else:
raise ValueError("Expecting a Variable or SpatialCoordinate in diff.")

This operator follows the grad convention where
for scalar expressions s, vector expressions v,
and arbitrary rank tensor expressions T.

"""
f = as_ufl(f)

[docs]def div(f):
"""Take the divergence of f.

This operator follows the div convention where
div(v) = v[i].dx(i)
div(T)[:] = T[:,i].dx(i)
for vector expressions v, and
arbitrary rank tensor expressions T.

"""
f = as_ufl(f)
return Div(f)

This operator follows the grad convention where
for scalar expressions s, vector expressions v,
and arbitrary rank tensor expressions T.

"""
f = as_ufl(f)

[docs]def nabla_div(f):
"""Take the divergence of f.

This operator follows the div convention where
nabla_div(v) = v[i].dx(i)
nabla_div(T)[:] = T[i,:].dx(i)
for vector expressions v, and
arbitrary rank tensor expressions T.

"""
f = as_ufl(f)

[docs]def curl(f):
"""Take the curl of f."""
f = as_ufl(f)
return Curl(f)

rot = curl

# --- DG operators ---

[docs]def jump(v, n=None):
"""Take the jump of v across a facet."""
v = as_ufl(v)
is_constant = len(extract_domains(v)) > 0
if is_constant:
if n is None:
return v("+") - v("-")
r = len(v.ufl_shape)
if r == 0:
return v("+") * n("+") + v("-") * n("-")
else:
return dot(v("+"), n("+")) + dot(v("-"), n("-"))
else:
warnings.warn(
"Returning zero from jump of expression without a domain. "
"This may be erroneous if a dolfin.Expression is involved."
)
# FIXME: Is this right? If v has no domain, it doesn't depend
# on anything spatially variable or any form arguments, and
# thus the jump is zero. In other words, I'm assuming that "v
# has no geometric domains" is equivalent with "v is a spatial
# constant".  Update: This is NOT true for
# jump(Expression("x[0]")) from dolfin.
return Zero(v.ufl_shape, v.ufl_free_indices, v.ufl_index_dimensions)

[docs]def avg(v):
"""Take the average of v across a facet."""
v = as_ufl(v)
return 0.5 * (v("+") + v("-"))

[docs]def cell_avg(f):
"""Take the average of v over a cell."""
return CellAvg(f)

[docs]def facet_avg(f):
"""Take the average of v over a facet."""
return FacetAvg(f)

# --- Other operators ---

[docs]def variable(e):
"""Define a variable representing the given expression.

"""
e = as_ufl(e)
return Variable(e)

# --- Conditional expressions ---

[docs]def conditional(condition, true_value, false_value):
"""A conditional expression.

This takes the value of true_value
when condition evaluates to true and false_value otherwise.
"""
return Conditional(condition, true_value, false_value)

[docs]def eq(left, right):
"""A boolean expression (left == right) for use with conditional."""
return EQ(left, right)

[docs]def ne(left, right):
"""A boolean expression (left != right) for use with conditional."""
return NE(left, right)

[docs]def le(left, right):
"""A boolean expression (left <= right) for use with conditional."""
return as_ufl(left) <= as_ufl(right)

[docs]def ge(left, right):
"""A boolean expression (left >= right) for use with conditional."""
return as_ufl(left) >= as_ufl(right)

[docs]def lt(left, right):
"""A boolean expression (left < right) for use with conditional."""
return as_ufl(left) < as_ufl(right)

[docs]def gt(left, right):
"""A boolean expression (left > right) for use with conditional."""
return as_ufl(left) > as_ufl(right)

[docs]def And(left, right):
"""A boolean expression (left and right) for use with conditional."""
return AndCondition(left, right)

[docs]def Or(left, right):
"""A boolean expression (left or right) for use with conditional."""
return OrCondition(left, right)

[docs]def Not(condition):
"""A boolean expression (not condition) for use with conditional."""
return NotCondition(condition)

[docs]def sign(x):
"""Return the sign of x.

This returns +1 if x is positive, -1 if x is negative, and 0 if x is 0.
"""
# TODO: Add a Sign type for this?
return conditional(eq(x, 0), 0, conditional(lt(x, 0), -1, +1))

[docs]def max_value(x, y):
"""Take the maximum of x and y."""
x = as_ufl(x)
y = as_ufl(y)
return MaxValue(x, y)

[docs]def min_value(x, y):
"""Take the minimum of x and y."""
x = as_ufl(x)
y = as_ufl(y)
return MinValue(x, y)

# --- Math functions ---

def _mathfunction(f, cls):
"""A mat function."""
f = as_ufl(f)
r = cls(f)
if isinstance(r, (RealValue, Zero, int, float)):
return float(r)
if isinstance(r, (ComplexValue, complex)):
return complex(r)
return r

[docs]def sqrt(f):
"""Take the square root of f."""
return _mathfunction(f, Sqrt)

[docs]def exp(f):
"""Take the exponential of f."""
return _mathfunction(f, Exp)

[docs]def ln(f):
"""Take the natural logarithm of f."""
return _mathfunction(f, Ln)

[docs]def cos(f):
"""Take the cosine of f."""
return _mathfunction(f, Cos)

[docs]def sin(f):
"""Take the sine of f."""
return _mathfunction(f, Sin)

[docs]def tan(f):
"""Take the tangent of f."""
return _mathfunction(f, Tan)

[docs]def cosh(f):
"""Take the hyperbolic cosine of f."""
return _mathfunction(f, Cosh)

[docs]def sinh(f):
"""Take the hyperbolic sine of f."""
return _mathfunction(f, Sinh)

[docs]def tanh(f):
"""Take the hyperbolic tangent of f."""
return _mathfunction(f, Tanh)

[docs]def acos(f):
"""Take the inverse cosine of f."""
return _mathfunction(f, Acos)

[docs]def asin(f):
"""Take the inverse sine of f."""
return _mathfunction(f, Asin)

[docs]def atan(f):
"""Take the inverse tangent of f."""
return _mathfunction(f, Atan)

[docs]def atan2(f1, f2):
"""Take the inverse tangent with two the arguments f1 and f2."""
f1 = as_ufl(f1)
f2 = as_ufl(f2)
if isinstance(f1, (ComplexValue, complex)) or isinstance(f2, (ComplexValue, complex)):
raise TypeError("atan2 is incompatible with complex numbers.")
r = Atan2(f1, f2)
if isinstance(r, (RealValue, Zero, int, float)):
return float(r)
if isinstance(r, (ComplexValue, complex)):
return complex(r)
return r

[docs]def erf(f):
"""Take the error function of f."""
return _mathfunction(f, Erf)

[docs]def bessel_J(nu, f):
"""Cylindrical Bessel function of the first kind."""
nu = as_ufl(nu)
f = as_ufl(f)
return BesselJ(nu, f)

[docs]def bessel_Y(nu, f):
"""Cylindrical Bessel function of the second kind."""
nu = as_ufl(nu)
f = as_ufl(f)
return BesselY(nu, f)

[docs]def bessel_I(nu, f):
"""Regular modified cylindrical Bessel function."""
nu = as_ufl(nu)
f = as_ufl(f)
return BesselI(nu, f)

[docs]def bessel_K(nu, f):
"""Irregular modified cylindrical Bessel function."""
nu = as_ufl(nu)
f = as_ufl(f)
return BesselK(nu, f)

# --- Special function for exterior_derivative

[docs]def exterior_derivative(f):
"""Take the exterior derivative of f.

The exterior derivative uses the element Sobolev space to
determine whether id, grad, curl or div should be used.

Note that this uses the grad and div operators,
as opposed to nabla_grad and nabla_div.
"""
# Extract the element from the input f
if isinstance(f, Indexed):
expression, indices = f.ufl_operands
if len(indices) > 1:
raise NotImplementedError
index = int(indices[0])
element = expression.ufl_element()
while index != 0:
for e in element.sub_elements:
if e.value_size > index:
element = e
break
index -= e.value_size
elif isinstance(f, ListTensor):
f0 = f.ufl_operands[0]
f0expr, f0indices = f0.ufl_operands  # FIXME: Assumption on type of f0!!!
if len(f0indices) > 1:
raise NotImplementedError
index = int(f0indices[0])
element = f0expr.ufl_element()
while index != 0:
for e in element.sub_elements:
if e.value_size > index:
element = e
break
index -= e.value_size
else:
try:
element = f.ufl_element()
except Exception:
raise ValueError(f"Unable to determine element from {f}")

domain = f.ufl_domain()

gdim = domain.geometric_dimension()
space = element.sobolev_space

if space == sobolevspace.L2:
return f
elif space == sobolevspace.H1:
if gdim == 1:
return grad(f)[0]  # Special-case 1D vectors as scalars