# Source code for ufl.formoperators

```
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"Various high level ways to transform a complete Form into a new Form."
# Copyright (C) 2008-2016 Martin Sandve Alnæs
#
# This file is part of UFL (https://www.fenicsproject.org)
#
# SPDX-License-Identifier: LGPL-3.0-or-later
#
# Modified by Anders Logg, 2009
# Modified by Massimiliano Leoni, 2016
# Modified by Cecile Daversin-Catty, 2018
from ufl.log import error
from ufl.form import Form, as_form
from ufl.core.expr import Expr, ufl_err_str
from ufl.split_functions import split
from ufl.exprcontainers import ExprList, ExprMapping
from ufl.variable import Variable
from ufl.finiteelement import MixedElement
from ufl.argument import Argument
from ufl.coefficient import Coefficient
from ufl.differentiation import CoefficientDerivative, CoordinateDerivative
from ufl.constantvalue import is_true_ufl_scalar, as_ufl
from ufl.indexed import Indexed
from ufl.core.multiindex import FixedIndex, MultiIndex
from ufl.tensors import as_tensor, ListTensor
from ufl.sorting import sorted_expr
from ufl.functionspace import FunctionSpace
from ufl.geometry import SpatialCoordinate
# An exception to the rule that ufl.* does not depend on ufl.algorithms.* ...
from ufl.algorithms import compute_form_adjoint, compute_form_action
from ufl.algorithms import compute_energy_norm
from ufl.algorithms import compute_form_lhs, compute_form_rhs, compute_form_functional
from ufl.algorithms import expand_derivatives, extract_arguments
# Part of the external interface
from ufl.algorithms import replace # noqa
[docs]def extract_blocks(form, i=None, j=None):
"""UFL form operator:
Given a linear or bilinear form on a mixed space,
extract the block corresponding to the indices ix, iy.
Example:
-------
a = inner(grad(u), grad(v))*dx + div(u)*q*dx + div(v)*p*dx
extract_blocks(a, 0, 0) -> inner(grad(u), grad(v))*dx
extract_blocks(a) -> [inner(grad(u), grad(v))*dx, div(v)*p*dx, div(u)*q*dx, 0]
"""
return ufl.algorithms.formsplitter.extract_blocks(form, i, j)
[docs]def lhs(form):
"""UFL form operator:
Given a combined bilinear and linear form,
extract the left hand side (bilinear form part).
Example:
-------
a = u*v*dx + f*v*dx
a = lhs(a) -> u*v*dx
"""
form = as_form(form)
form = expand_derivatives(form)
return compute_form_lhs(form)
[docs]def rhs(form):
"""UFL form operator:
Given a combined bilinear and linear form,
extract the right hand side (negated linear form part).
Example:
-------
a = u*v*dx + f*v*dx
L = rhs(a) -> -f*v*dx
"""
form = as_form(form)
form = expand_derivatives(form)
return compute_form_rhs(form)
[docs]def system(form):
"""UFL form operator: Split a form into the left hand side and right hand
side, see ``lhs`` and ``rhs``."""
return lhs(form), rhs(form)
[docs]def functional(form): # TODO: Does this make sense for anything other than testing?
"UFL form operator: Extract the functional part of form."
form = as_form(form)
form = expand_derivatives(form)
return compute_form_functional(form)
[docs]def action(form, coefficient=None):
"""UFL form operator:
Given a bilinear form, return a linear form
with an additional coefficient, representing the
action of the form on the coefficient. This can be
used for matrix-free methods."""
form = as_form(form)
form = expand_derivatives(form)
return compute_form_action(form, coefficient)
[docs]def energy_norm(form, coefficient=None):
"""UFL form operator:
Given a bilinear form *a* and a coefficient *f*,
return the functional :math:`a(f,f)`."""
form = as_form(form)
form = expand_derivatives(form)
return compute_energy_norm(form, coefficient)
[docs]def adjoint(form, reordered_arguments=None):
"""UFL form operator:
Given a combined bilinear form, compute the adjoint form by
changing the ordering (count) of the test and trial functions, and
taking the complex conjugate of the result.
By default, new ``Argument`` objects will be created with
opposite ordering. However, if the adjoint form is to
be added to other forms later, their arguments must match.
In that case, the user must provide a tuple *reordered_arguments*=(u2,v2).
"""
form = as_form(form)
form = expand_derivatives(form)
return compute_form_adjoint(form, reordered_arguments)
[docs]def zero_lists(shape):
if len(shape) == 0:
error("Invalid shape.")
elif len(shape) == 1:
return [0] * shape[0]
else:
return [zero_lists(shape[1:]) for i in range(shape[0])]
[docs]def set_list_item(li, i, v):
# Get to the innermost list
if len(i) > 1:
for j in i[:-1]:
li = li[j]
# Set item in innermost list
li[i[-1]] = v
def _handle_derivative_arguments(form, coefficient, argument):
# Wrap single coefficient in tuple for uniform treatment below
if isinstance(coefficient, (list, tuple, ListTensor)):
coefficients = tuple(coefficient)
else:
coefficients = (coefficient,)
if argument is None:
# Try to create argument if not provided
if not all(isinstance(c, Coefficient) for c in coefficients):
error("Can only create arguments automatically for non-indexed coefficients.")
# Get existing arguments from form and position the new one
# with the next argument number
if isinstance(form, Form):
form_arguments = form.arguments()
else:
# To handle derivative(expression), which is at least used
# in tests. Remove?
form_arguments = extract_arguments(form)
numbers = sorted(set(arg.number() for arg in form_arguments))
number = max(numbers + [-1]) + 1
# Don't know what to do with parts, let the user sort it out
# in that case
parts = set(arg.part() for arg in form_arguments)
if len(parts - {None}) != 0:
error("Not expecting parts here, provide your own arguments.")
part = None
# Create argument and split it if in a mixed space
function_spaces = [c.ufl_function_space() for c in coefficients]
domains = [fs.ufl_domain() for fs in function_spaces]
elements = [fs.ufl_element() for fs in function_spaces]
if len(function_spaces) == 1:
arguments = (Argument(function_spaces[0], number, part),)
else:
# Create in mixed space over assumed (for now) same domain
assert all(fs.ufl_domain() == domains[0] for fs in function_spaces)
elm = MixedElement(*elements)
fs = FunctionSpace(domains[0], elm)
arguments = split(Argument(fs, number, part))
else:
# Wrap single argument in tuple for uniform treatment below
if isinstance(argument, (list, tuple)):
arguments = tuple(argument)
else:
n = len(coefficients)
if n == 1:
arguments = (argument,)
else:
if argument.ufl_shape == (n,):
arguments = tuple(argument[i] for i in range(n))
else:
arguments = split(argument)
# Build mapping from coefficient to argument
m = {}
for (c, a) in zip(coefficients, arguments):
if c.ufl_shape != a.ufl_shape:
error("Coefficient and argument shapes do not match!")
if isinstance(c, Coefficient) or isinstance(c, SpatialCoordinate):
m[c] = a
else:
if not isinstance(c, Indexed):
error("Invalid coefficient type for %s" % ufl_err_str(c))
f, i = c.ufl_operands
if not isinstance(f, Coefficient):
error("Expecting an indexed coefficient, not %s" % ufl_err_str(f))
if not (isinstance(i, MultiIndex) and all(isinstance(j, FixedIndex) for j in i)):
error("Expecting one or more fixed indices, not %s" % ufl_err_str(i))
i = tuple(int(j) for j in i)
if f not in m:
m[f] = {}
m[f][i] = a
# Merge coefficient derivatives (arguments) based on indices
for c, p in m.items():
if isinstance(p, dict):
a = zero_lists(c.ufl_shape)
for i, g in p.items():
set_list_item(a, i, g)
m[c] = as_tensor(a)
# Wrap and return generic tuples
items = sorted(m.items(), key=lambda x: x[0].count())
coefficients = ExprList(*[item[0] for item in items])
arguments = ExprList(*[item[1] for item in items])
return coefficients, arguments
[docs]def derivative(form, coefficient, argument=None, coefficient_derivatives=None):
"""UFL form operator:
Compute the Gateaux derivative of *form* w.r.t. *coefficient* in direction
of *argument*.
If the argument is omitted, a new ``Argument`` is created
in the same space as the coefficient, with argument number
one higher than the highest one in the form.
The resulting form has one additional ``Argument``
in the same finite element space as the coefficient.
A tuple of ``Coefficient`` s may be provided in place of
a single ``Coefficient``, in which case the new ``Argument``
argument is based on a ``MixedElement`` created from this tuple.
An indexed ``Coefficient`` from a mixed space may be provided,
in which case the argument should be in the corresponding
subspace of the coefficient space.
If provided, *coefficient_derivatives* should be a mapping from
``Coefficient`` instances to their derivatives w.r.t. *coefficient*.
"""
coefficients, arguments = _handle_derivative_arguments(form, coefficient,
argument)
if coefficient_derivatives is None:
coefficient_derivatives = ExprMapping()
else:
cd = []
for k in sorted_expr(coefficient_derivatives.keys()):
cd += [as_ufl(k), as_ufl(coefficient_derivatives[k])]
coefficient_derivatives = ExprMapping(*cd)
# Got a form? Apply derivatives to the integrands in turn.
if isinstance(form, Form):
integrals = []
for itg in form.integrals():
if not isinstance(coefficient, SpatialCoordinate):
fd = CoefficientDerivative(itg.integrand(), coefficients,
arguments, coefficient_derivatives)
else:
fd = CoordinateDerivative(itg.integrand(), coefficients,
arguments, coefficient_derivatives)
integrals.append(itg.reconstruct(fd))
return Form(integrals)
elif isinstance(form, Expr):
# What we got was in fact an integrand
if not isinstance(coefficient, SpatialCoordinate):
return CoefficientDerivative(form, coefficients,
arguments, coefficient_derivatives)
else:
return CoordinateDerivative(form, coefficients,
arguments, coefficient_derivatives)
error("Invalid argument type %s." % str(type(form)))
[docs]def sensitivity_rhs(a, u, L, v):
"""UFL form operator:
Compute the right hand side for a sensitivity calculation system.
The derivation behind this computation is as follows.
Assume *a*, *L* to be bilinear and linear forms
corresponding to the assembled linear system
.. math::
Ax = b.
Where *x* is the vector of the discrete function corresponding to *u*.
Let *v* be some scalar variable this equation depends on.
Then we can write
.. math::
0 = \\frac{d}{dv}(Ax-b) = \\frac{dA}{dv} x + A \\frac{dx}{dv} -
\\frac{db}{dv},
A \\frac{dx}{dv} = \\frac{db}{dv} - \\frac{dA}{dv} x,
and solve this system for :math:`\\frac{dx}{dv}`, using the same bilinear
form *a* and matrix *A* from the original system.
Assume the forms are written
::
v = variable(v_expression)
L = IL(v)*dx
a = Ia(v)*dx
where ``IL`` and ``Ia`` are integrand expressions.
Define a ``Coefficient u`` representing the solution
to the equations. Then we can compute :math:`\\frac{db}{dv}`
and :math:`\\frac{dA}{dv}` from the forms
::
da = diff(a, v)
dL = diff(L, v)
and the action of ``da`` on ``u`` by
::
dau = action(da, u)
In total, we can build the right hand side of the system
to compute :math:`\\frac{du}{dv}` with the single line
::
dL = diff(L, v) - action(diff(a, v), u)
or, using this function,
::
dL = sensitivity_rhs(a, u, L, v)
"""
if not (isinstance(a, Form) and
isinstance(u, Coefficient) and
isinstance(L, Form) and
isinstance(v, Variable)):
error("Expecting (a, u, L, v), (bilinear form, function, linear form and scalar variable).")
if not is_true_ufl_scalar(v):
error("Expecting scalar variable.")
from ufl.operators import diff
return diff(L, v) - action(diff(a, v), u)
```